Acid rain and the rise of the environmental chemist in. National acid precipitation assessment program report to. It is related to the ruined city, and it poisons water so dogs are forced to run away from it. An alphabetical listing of 1,725 titles plus an author index.
Acid rain is precipitation that contains high levels of nitric or sulfuric acid. National acid precipitation assessment program report to congress 2011. Chemical modeling for air resources describes fundamental topics in chemical modeling and its scientific and regulatory applications in air pollution problems, such as ozone hole, acid rain, climate change, particulate matter, and other air toxins. Acid rain describes any form of precipitation that contains high levels of nitric and sulfuric acids. Acid rain had adversely affected aquatic life in about 10 percent of eastern lakes and streams. It is probably acid rain, as acid rain matches the characteristics of the dog term. Materials assembled and maintained for the corvallis environmental research laboratory. Relationships of acid deposition and sulfur dioxide. Jul 14, 2018 acid rain is any form of precipitation that contains acidic components, such as sulfuric or nitric acid. Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has. In the united states, about twothirds of sulfur dioxide and onequarter of nitrogen oxides come from power generation. Access to the complete content on oxford reference requires a subscription or purchase. Acid rain and the rise of the environmental chemist in 19th. The death of trees is not usually a direct result of acid rain, but it often weakens trees and makes them more susceptible to other threats.
Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. Acid rain, says boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of north america and europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Acid rain facts and information national geographic. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts. Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions. An acid rain bibliography cerl053b july 1981 a catalog of collected documents relevant to acidic precipitation. Natural and industrial sources can release sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere, leading them to combine chemically with oxygen and water to form their respective acidic molecules. Find all the books, read about the author, and more. Acid rain also increases the corrosion rate of metals, in particular iron, steel, copper and bronze. These chemicals are converted to sulfuric acid and nitric acid in the atmosphere and can be carried by the winds for many miles. Acid rain is the result of the ph of water in the sky dropping below 5. To achieve this goal at the lowest cost to the public, the program employs both traditional. This bibliography was generated on cite this for me on tuesday, february 17, 2015.
University of central florida library, 1980 ocolc619115097. In the united states, about twothirds of sulfur dioxide and onequarter. The phenomenon became an important part of his book air and rain. Acid rain had contributed to erosion and corrosion of buildings and materials. Sep 11, 2019 acid rain is the result of the ph of water in the sky dropping below 5. Acid rain, a bibliography of research annotated for easy access. Rain acquires additional acidity through the reaction of air pollutants primarily. Two decades of environmental laws have reduced pollution caused by acid. Acid rain chemistry bibliographies cite this for me.
Acid rain is also called acid deposition because this term includes other forms of acidic precipitation such as snow. Acid rain is caused by the mixing of moisture in the atmosphere with sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxides, forming sulfuric acid and nitric acid in the precipitation that falls to the earth. Twenty years later, in a very detailed book titled air and rain. Although there are natural sources of acid in the atmosphere, acid rain is primarily caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide so2 and nitrous oxide n2o from.
Explains the effects of acid rain on our planet, such as the health risks to humans, plants, and animals, and suggests ways to help alleviate the problem. The book will have wide appeal, but i particularly recommend it to those interested in the history of the chemical industry or the history of environmentalism. Sources and environmental impacts of acid rain and acid. What is interesting about acid rain is that acid rain can have varying degrees of strength or intensity, due to the fact that acid rain that is acidic but has a higher ph level would not be as strong and damaging to the environment as acid rain that has an extremely low ph level, and is therefore more strongly acidic and can cause a great deal. Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids. Places significantly impacted by acid rain around the globe include most of eastern europe from poland northward into scandinavia, the eastern third of the united states, and southeastern canada.
Acid rain has become one of the major environmental problems facing industrialized countries. Acid rain has pernicious effects on structures made of steel, which forced us to shift to stainless steel, and particularly structures made of limestone or sandstone. So, even the most acidic rain is not acidic enough to dissolve our skin, but that doesnt mean we should feel relieved and cease to worry about it. Its overall goal is to achieve significant environmental and public health benefits through reductions in emissions of so 2 and no x, the primary causes of acid rain. Acid rain can cause damage to crops, trees, rivers, animals and lakes. Acid rain affects each and every components of ecosystem. Acid rain is made up of water droplets that are unusually acidic because of atmospheric pollution, most notably the excessive amounts of sulfur and nitrogen released by cars and industrial processes. Purchase acid rain and the rise of the environmental chemist in 19th century britain. You can simulate acid rain using various methods, but 2 experiments in particular allow you to simulate it easily, inexpensively, and quickly. Neal, p 1992, the acid rain effect, 1st edn, bath press colourbooks, north yorkshire, great britian. The acid rain program was created under title iv of the 1990 clean air act amendments. Acid rain was discovered in the 19th century by robert angus smith, a pharmacist from manchester england, who measured high levels of acidity in rain falling over industrial regions of england and contrasted them to the much lower levels he. An alphabetic listing of 3,200 titles plus an author index.
Effects of acid rain surface waters and aquatic animals. In the northern hemisphere, the most common source of these chemicals in the atmosphere is air pollution from industry, generation of electricity and automobiles. A number of corroborative analysis methods are described to help extract information from model data. The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure. Air pollution combines with water in the atmosphere and falls to the earth as acidic rain or snow. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon. The main causes of acid rain are gases called sulfur dioxide so2 and nitrogen oxides nox. Pdf acid rain is one of the major environmental threats since 19th century. When these chemical compounds, composed of sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide, react with water vapor, the result is sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Soybean seedlings glycine max grown in a glasshouse were exposed to simulated acid rain using a solution of deionized water containing sulfate, nitrate and chloride in concentrations and proportions equivalent to those in ambient rain water.
Jan 23, 2020 acid rain is made up of water droplets that are unusually acidic because of atmospheric pollution, most notably the excessive amounts of sulfur and nitrogen released by cars and industrial processes. Effect of simulated acid rain on the growth of soybean. The relationships between chemical emissions into the atmosphere and the effects of these chemicals on various ecosystems, human health, and. Trivia gillian said that black rain is like acid rain, and explained that it is fallout from the chemical disaster that was caused by the big growl. Rain is called acid rain only if it has more acid than normal. Acid rain is a byproduct of our industrialized society.
Materials assembled and maintained for the corvallis environmental research laboratory usepa, 200 s. Natural rain is slightly acidic, but human activities make it worse. An acid rain bibliography cerl053 a catalog of collected documents relevant to acidic precipitation. Acid rain is one of the major environmental threats since 19th century. Despite this, evidence points to the existence of a problem that will be of increasing concern in the last decades of the twentieth century. Acid rain chemistry bibliographies in harvard style.
E book or pdf edited book email encyclopedia article govt. Although there are natural sources of acid in the atmosphere, acid rain is primarily caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide so 2 and nitrous oxide n 2 o from electric utilities burning fossil fuels, especially coal. Write an apastyle research paper about acid rain, the. Plants were subjected to acid rain treatment twice a week during the growing season, for a 1 hr period at a rate of 5 mm hr. Is this a pointsource pollutant or nonpointsource pollutant. The beginnings of a chemical climatology, smith first used the term acid rain. Acid rain had contributed to the decline of red spruce at high elevations by reducing that species cold tolerance. However, it accrues over time as water evaporates from bodies of water in the water cycle. Readers respond to an editorial about the effect of legislation on acid rain and the environment. Produced when sulfur dioxide and various nitrogen oxides combine with atmospheric moisture, acid rain can contaminate drinking water, damage vegetation and aquatic life, and erode buildings and monuments. It also examines debates within the scientific community as a basis for evaluating policy decisions. These findings spurred intense research to understand the origin of the acid rain phenomenon. Clean or unpolluted rain is slightly acidic, because carbon dioxide and water in the air react together to form carbonic acid, a weak acid.
Acid deposition can reduce the ph of surface waters, lower biodiversity, and increase the susceptibility of plants to disease and other stressors. The phrase acid rain was first used in 1852 by scottish chemist robert angus smith during his investigation of rainwater chemistry near industrial cities in england and scotland. Acid rain was discovered in the 19th century by robert angus smith, a pharmacist from manchester england, who measured high levels of acidity in rain falling over industrial regions of england and contrasted them to the much lower levels he observed in less polluted areas near the coast. This happens because of gases that are emitted into the environment and then trapped in the water, lowering the ph. List of books and articles about acid rain online research.
In addition, acid rain causes clay soils to release metals, including aluminum and magnesium, which further lower the ph of the water. Humans are the main cause of acid rain, according to the epa, because many different chemicals get released into the air as a result of burning fossil fuels, exhaust from cars and the use of aerosol cans. Write an apastyle research paper about acid rain, the impacts, and mitigation of harmful effects. Some governments have made efforts since the 1970s to reduce the release of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere with positive re.
Oxford reference requires a subscription or purchase. Acid rain affects plants directly and decreases soil quality to reduce yields from agriculture. Include both natural and human sources, as applicable. Sage reference acid rain sage knowledge sage publications. Acid rain is a term for rain, snow, or other precipitation produced from water vapor in the air reacting with emissions from automobiles, factories, power plants, and other oil and coal burning sources. It was not until the late 1960s and early 1970s, however, that acid rain was recognized as a regional. Sulfur dioxide gradually oxidizes to form sulfur trioxide so 3 2so 2 g o 2 g 2so 3 g 5. Discussions and reports about acid rain often use the terms acid deposition or atmospheric deposition to describe this return of airborne pollutants to earth. This study describes the origins of acid rain, how it is formed, the ecological and human effects, and prevention methods. Acid rain definition of acid rain by the free dictionary. Its effects are particularly severe in locations near sources of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. These are the sources and citations used to research acid rain. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Black rain is harmful acidic rain with a sharp acrid scent.455 103 1222 1240 369 1050 664 1460 1354 945 844 1045 420 405 1479 593 67 363 228 694 366 1227 619 661 698 94 398 1211 810