Acid rain book references

Acid rain was discovered in the 19th century by robert angus smith, a pharmacist from manchester england, who measured high levels of acidity in rain falling over industrial regions of england and contrasted them to the much lower levels he. Although there are natural sources of acid in the atmosphere, acid rain is primarily caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide so2 and nitrous oxide n2o from. In addition, acid rain causes clay soils to release metals, including aluminum and magnesium, which further lower the ph of the water. Trivia gillian said that black rain is like acid rain, and explained that it is fallout from the chemical disaster that was caused by the big growl. The phrase acid rain was first used in 1852 by scottish chemist robert angus smith during his investigation of rainwater chemistry near industrial cities in england and scotland. Acid rain affects each and every components of ecosystem. Natural rain is slightly acidic, but human activities make it worse. Acid rain describes any form of precipitation that contains high levels of nitric and sulfuric acids. Acid rain has pernicious effects on structures made of steel, which forced us to shift to stainless steel, and particularly structures made of limestone or sandstone. Acid rain had adversely affected aquatic life in about 10 percent of eastern lakes and streams. Plants were subjected to acid rain treatment twice a week during the growing season, for a 1 hr period at a rate of 5 mm hr. Materials assembled and maintained for the corvallis environmental research laboratory. Acid rain is a term for rain, snow, or other precipitation produced from water vapor in the air reacting with emissions from automobiles, factories, power plants, and other oil and coal burning sources.

Soybean seedlings glycine max grown in a glasshouse were exposed to simulated acid rain using a solution of deionized water containing sulfate, nitrate and chloride in concentrations and proportions equivalent to those in ambient rain water. What is interesting about acid rain is that acid rain can have varying degrees of strength or intensity, due to the fact that acid rain that is acidic but has a higher ph level would not be as strong and damaging to the environment as acid rain that has an extremely low ph level, and is therefore more strongly acidic and can cause a great deal. This bibliography was generated on cite this for me on tuesday, february 17, 2015. Places significantly impacted by acid rain around the globe include most of eastern europe from poland northward into scandinavia, the eastern third of the united states, and southeastern canada. Much has been written on the subject, often with political rhetoric and emotional speculation providing the theme. Air pollution combines with water in the atmosphere and falls to the earth as acidic rain or snow. Effect of simulated acid rain on the growth of soybean. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts. The book will have wide appeal, but i particularly recommend it to those interested in the history of the chemical industry or the history of environmentalism. Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions. It can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure. List of books and articles about acid rain online research. Clean or unpolluted rain is slightly acidic, because carbon dioxide and water in the air react together to form carbonic acid, a weak acid.

Discussions and reports about acid rain often use the terms acid deposition or atmospheric deposition to describe this return of airborne pollutants to earth. Acid rain is precipitation that contains high levels of nitric or sulfuric acid. Oxford reference requires a subscription or purchase. Acid rain has become one of the major environmental problems facing industrialized countries. This study describes the origins of acid rain, how it is formed, the ecological and human effects, and prevention methods. Acid rain is caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, which react with the water molecules in the atmosphere to produce acids.

Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter. Acid rain was discovered in the 19th century by robert angus smith, a pharmacist from manchester england, who measured high levels of acidity in rain falling over industrial regions of england and contrasted them to the much lower levels he observed in less polluted areas near the coast. Effects of acid rain surface waters and aquatic animals. Although there are natural sources of acid in the atmosphere, acid rain is primarily caused by emissions of sulfur dioxide so 2 and nitrous oxide n 2 o from electric utilities burning fossil fuels, especially coal. Acid rain is a byproduct of our industrialized society. Research acid rain information plus reference series. An alphabetical listing of 1,725 titles plus an author index. However, it accrues over time as water evaporates from bodies of water in the water cycle. Jan 23, 2020 acid rain is made up of water droplets that are unusually acidic because of atmospheric pollution, most notably the excessive amounts of sulfur and nitrogen released by cars and industrial processes. Acid rain chemistry bibliographies in harvard style. Acid rain is made up of water droplets that are unusually acidic because of atmospheric pollution, most notably the excessive amounts of sulfur and nitrogen released by cars and industrial processes.

Sulfur dioxide gradually oxidizes to form sulfur trioxide so 3 2so 2 g o 2 g 2so 3 g 5. Its overall goal is to achieve significant environmental and public health benefits through reductions in emissions of so 2 and no x, the primary causes of acid rain. Acid rain and the rise of the environmental chemist in 19th. Acid rain is one of the major environmental threats since 19th century.

It was not until the late 1960s and early 1970s, however, that acid rain was recognized as a regional. It is probably acid rain, as acid rain matches the characteristics of the dog term. Write an apastyle research paper about acid rain, the. Materials assembled and maintained for the corvallis environmental research laboratory usepa, 200 s. It can also occur in the form of snow, fog, and tiny bits of dry material that settle to earth. Access to the complete content on oxford reference requires a subscription or purchase. Readers respond to an editorial about the effect of legislation on acid rain and the environment. Acid rain had contributed to erosion and corrosion of buildings and materials. Acid rain is caused by the mixing of moisture in the atmosphere with sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxides, forming sulfuric acid and nitric acid in the precipitation that falls to the earth. In the united states, about twothirds of sulfur dioxide and onequarter of nitrogen oxides come from power generation. Despite this, evidence points to the existence of a problem that will be of increasing concern in the last decades of the twentieth century. These findings spurred intense research to understand the origin of the acid rain phenomenon. An alphabetic listing of 3,200 titles plus an author index. The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles.

It also examines debates within the scientific community as a basis for evaluating policy decisions. An acid rain bibliography cerl053b july 1981 a catalog of collected documents relevant to acidic precipitation. The relationships between chemical emissions into the atmosphere and the effects of these chemicals on various ecosystems, human health, and. To achieve this goal at the lowest cost to the public, the program employs both traditional. Study the causes, effects, along with a few examples and understand the prevention measures. This happens because of gases that are emitted into the environment and then trapped in the water, lowering the ph. In the northern hemisphere, the most common source of these chemicals in the atmosphere is air pollution from industry, generation of electricity and automobiles. Acid rain and the rise of the environmental chemist in. You can simulate acid rain using various methods, but 2 experiments in particular allow you to simulate it easily, inexpensively, and quickly. Rain is called acid rain only if it has more acid than normal. Humans are the main cause of acid rain, according to the epa, because many different chemicals get released into the air as a result of burning fossil fuels, exhaust from cars and the use of aerosol cans.

Some governments have made efforts since the 1970s to reduce the release of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere with positive re. Acid rain, a bibliography of research annotated for easy access. An acid rain bibliography cerl053 a catalog of collected documents relevant to acidic precipitation. Acid rain is the result of the ph of water in the sky dropping below 5. Chemical modeling for air resources describes fundamental topics in chemical modeling and its scientific and regulatory applications in air pollution problems, such as ozone hole, acid rain, climate change, particulate matter, and other air toxins. The acid rain program was created under title iv of the 1990 clean air act amendments.

Acid rain, precipitation possessing a ph of about 5. Acid rain is also called acid deposition because this term includes other forms of acidic precipitation such as snow. These are the sources and citations used to research acid rain. The beginnings of a chemical climatology, smith first used the term acid rain. Black rain is harmful acidic rain with a sharp acrid scent. Is this a pointsource pollutant or nonpointsource pollutant. Its effects are particularly severe in locations near sources of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. University of central florida library, 1980 ocolc619115097. Acid rain, says boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of north america and europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Acid rain affects plants directly and decreases soil quality to reduce yields from agriculture. Neal, p 1992, the acid rain effect, 1st edn, bath press colourbooks, north yorkshire, great britian. Two decades of environmental laws have reduced pollution caused by acid. Acid rain definition of acid rain by the free dictionary. Acid rain can cause damage to crops, trees, rivers, animals and lakes.

Find all the books, read about the author, and more. Sep 11, 2019 acid rain is the result of the ph of water in the sky dropping below 5. A number of corroborative analysis methods are described to help extract information from model data. Natural and industrial sources can release sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the atmosphere, leading them to combine chemically with oxygen and water to form their respective acidic molecules. It is related to the ruined city, and it poisons water so dogs are forced to run away from it. When these chemical compounds, composed of sulfur oxide and nitrogen oxide, react with water vapor, the result is sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Pdf acid rain is one of the major environmental threats since 19th century. Explains the effects of acid rain on our planet, such as the health risks to humans, plants, and animals, and suggests ways to help alleviate the problem. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Rain acquires additional acidity through the reaction of air pollutants primarily. Produced when sulfur dioxide and various nitrogen oxides combine with atmospheric moisture, acid rain can contaminate drinking water, damage vegetation and aquatic life, and erode buildings and monuments. Include both natural and human sources, as applicable. The death of trees is not usually a direct result of acid rain, but it often weakens trees and makes them more susceptible to other threats.

Write an apastyle research paper about acid rain, the impacts, and mitigation of harmful effects. E book or pdf edited book email encyclopedia article govt. So, even the most acidic rain is not acidic enough to dissolve our skin, but that doesnt mean we should feel relieved and cease to worry about it. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon. Acid rain facts and information national geographic. Sage reference acid rain sage knowledge sage publications. In the united states, about twothirds of sulfur dioxide and onequarter.

The main causes of acid rain are gases called sulfur dioxide so2 and nitrogen oxides nox. Acid deposition can reduce the ph of surface waters, lower biodiversity, and increase the susceptibility of plants to disease and other stressors. Sources and environmental impacts of acid rain and acid. Relationships of acid deposition and sulfur dioxide. National acid precipitation assessment program report to congress 2011.

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